In this Issue, Documents “Adverse effects within this narrow range can have a much greater effect on it than on more widespread bumble bees.”, If it’s given protective status, this could “stimulate research into the probable causes of its decline,” said Thorp. From 1998 to 2006, 14 potential populations could be identified. This document was received for publication by the Office of the Federal Register on August 7, 2019. Franklin's bumble bee was first observed in 1917 and first described in 1921, and limited occurrence and observation data exists for Franklin's bumble bee prior to 1998. Twenty bees were located in 1999, nine individuals were observed in 2000, and one individual was observed in 2001. This prototype edition of the Section 7(a)(4) of the Act requires Federal agencies to confer with the Service on any action that is likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a species proposed for listing or result in destruction or adverse modification of proposed critical habitat. We request that you send comments only by the methods described above. 1983, p. 2; Macfarlane et al. It is not an official legal edition of the Federal Many of the occurrence records just provide point data for an occurrence, with no details on the size of the area searched or whether or not the record reflected a comprehensive search of an area. Counts are subject to sampling, reprocessing and revision (up or down) throughout the day. The Act encourages cooperation with the States and other countries and calls for recovery actions to be carried out for listed species. 12/17/2020, 306 Federal Register provide legal notice to the public and judicial notice Some general habitat associations of Bombus are known; however, as one of the rarest Bombus species, the Franklin's bumble bee is somewhat enigmatic and a specific habitat study for the Franklin's bumble bee has not been completed. Fish and Wildlife Service 2018, p. 36). The combination of multiple stressors is typically more harmful than a stressor acting alone, and it is likely that several of the stressors mentioned above acted cumulatively and synergistically on the Franklin's bumble bee. Data allow us to estimate 43 potential populations of the species since records have been kept. 2019-17337 Filed 8-12-19; 8:45 am], updated on 8:45 AM on Friday, December 18, 2020. In this study, the eastern bumble bee, which has a native range in eastern North America, was detected in western Canada (Ratti and Colla 2010, pp. We must receive requests for public hearings, in writing, at the address shown in FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT by September 27, 2019. The losses in both the number of populations and their spatial extent render the Franklin's bumble bee vulnerable to extinction even without further external stressors (e.g., pathogens and insecticide exposure) acting upon the species. It is our policy, as published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34272), to identify to the maximum extent practicable at the time a species is listed, those activities that would or would not constitute a violation of section 9 of the Act. Register, and does not replace the official print version or the official Because habitat for the Franklin's bumble bee is not limiting, and because the bee is considered to be flexible with regards to its habitat, the availability of habitat does not limit the conservation of the Franklin's bumble bee now, nor will it in the foreseeable future. This means that each rule we publish must: (2) Use the active voice to address readers directly; (3) Use clear language rather than jargon; (4) Be divided into short sections and sentences; and. Although the use of land for agricultural purposes has traditionally involved the use of pesticides and other products toxic to bees, one particular class of insecticides known as neonicotinoids have been strongly implicated in the decline of honey bees (Apis spp.) There are numerous instances of species rediscovered after many years, even decades, of having been believed extinct (e.g., Scheffers et al. documents in the last year. As with all Bombus species, Franklin's bumble bee has a unique genetic system called the haplodiploid sex determination system. 5658)), and our associated Information Quality Guidelines, provide criteria, establish procedures, and provide guidance to ensure that our decisions are based on the best scientific data available. on FederalRegister.gov The Franklin's bumble bee is on the species index for the U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management Interagency Special Status/Sensitive Species Program (ISSSSP). Some studies suggest that pollinators are responding to climate change with recent latitudinal and elevational range shifts such that there is spatial mismatch among plants and their pollinators; while this has been demonstrated in butterflies, it may be less of a factor for bumble bees (U.S. Implementation of recovery actions generally requires the participation of a broad range of partners, including other Federal agencies, States, Tribes, nongovernmental organizations, businesses, and private landowners. Although we have no direct evidence that small population size or a rapid extinction vortex contributed to the decline of the species, the genetic system and historically small population size of the Franklin's bumble bee likely heightened the species' vulnerability to other stressors in the environment; we, therefore, consider the effects of small population size a threat to the species. The similarity in foraging traits that the Franklin's bumble bee has with both honey bees and the other Bombus species (e.g., generalist foragers collecting pollen from similar food sources) allows us to infer that the Franklin's bumble bee would suffer exposure to and impacts from pesticides in similar measure to other Bombus species when the Franklin's bumble bee is in areas where pesticides are applied. Haplodiploid organisms may be more prone to population extinction than diploid-diploid organisms, due to their susceptibility to low population levels and loss of genetic diversity (U.S. Several studies on the impacts of livestock grazing on bees suggest an increase in the intensity of livestock grazing affects the species richness of bees (U.S. permits by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; and construction and maintenance of roads or highways by the Federal Highway Administration. ), need not be prepared in connection with listing a species as an endangered or threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Such a study was initiated in 2006, when the Franklin's bumble bee was last seen, but could not continue due to the subsequent absence of the species (Thorp 2017, pers. documents in the last year, by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration documents in the last year, 953 for better understanding how a document is structured but In accordance with Secretarial Order 3206 of June 5, 1997 (American Indian Tribal Rights, Federal-Tribal Trust Responsibilities, and the Endangered Species Act), we readily acknowledge our responsibilities to work directly with tribes in developing programs for healthy ecosystems, to acknowledge that tribal lands are not subject to the same controls as Federal public lands, to remain sensitive to Indian culture, and to make information available to tribes. daily Federal Register on FederalRegister.gov will remain an unofficial on Using these principles, we identified the species' ecological requirements for survival and reproduction at the individual, population, and species levels, and described the beneficial and risk factors influencing the species' viability. If a species is listed subsequently, section 7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal agencies to ensure that activities they authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of the species or destroy or adversely modify its critical habitat. 1251 et seq.) This document has been published in the Federal Register. the Federal Register. Certain exceptions apply to employees of the Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, other Federal land management agencies, and State conservation agencies. 2007, p. 81). We could not find information to indicate that any area of Franklin's bumble bee habitat in the range of the species has limited floral resources and large numbers of European honey bees. In contrast, grazing, especially by cattle, can play a key positive role in maintaining the abundance and species richness of preferred bumble bee forage (Carvell 2002, p. 44). GET BREAKING NEWS IN YOUR BROWSER. We will post all comments on http://www.regulations.gov. the current document as it appeared on Public Inspection on Bumble bee abundance for three species of Bombus in the Rocky Mountains increased when floral resources were available for more days, and the number of days where floral resources were available increased with greater summer precipitation and later snowmelt dates (Ogilvie et al. 16 U.S.C. The recovery planning process involves the identification of actions that are necessary to halt or reverse the species' decline by addressing the threats to its survival and recovery. In 1998, 98 bees were found among 11 locations. A Proposed Rule by the Fish and Wildlife Service on 08/13/2019. L. 106-554; H.R. Elevations where it has been observed range from 162 meters (m) (540 feet (ft)) in the northern part of its range, to over 2,340 m (7,800 ft) in the southern part of its range. Franklin's bumblebee (Bombus franklini) is known to be one of the most narrowly distributed bumblebee species, making it a critically endangered bee of the western United States. Although the Franklin's bumble bee is only proposed for listing under the Act at this time, please let us know if you are interested in participating in recovery efforts for this species. documents in the last year, 356 comm. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Franklin's bumble bee (Bombus franklini) as endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). These tools are designed to help you understand the official document 122-123). The U.S. “This bumble bee is partly at risk because of its very small range of distribution,” Thorp related before his death. Critical habitat is defined in section 3 of the Act as: (1) The specific areas within the geographical area occupied by the species, at the time it is listed in accordance with the Act, on which are found those physical or biological features, (a) Essential to the conservation of the species, and, (b) Which may require special management considerations or protection; and. It is not known if Franklin's bumble bees were still in the area and using the habitat at the time of the inundation. We define viability here as the likelihood of the species to persist over the long term and, conversely, to avoid extinction. More information and documentation can be found in our While Bombus species in general might prefer protected meadows with an abundance of wildflowers, the Franklin's bumble bee has been found in a wide array of habitat types, from foraging in montane meadows in a remote wilderness area of California to nesting in a residential garage in the city limits of Medford, Oregon. Because we have determined that the Franklin's bumble bee is in danger of extinction throughout its range, we find it unnecessary to proceed to an evaluation of potentially significant portions of the range. If approved, Franklin’s bumble bee would be the first bee in the western United States to be officially recognized under the act. You may submit a comment by clicking on “Comment Now!”. Thorp’s surveys clearly show the declining population. Agricultural intensification was determined to be a primary factor leading to the local extirpation and decline of bumble bees in Illinois (Grixti et al. For complete information about, and access to, our official publications The rusty patched bumble bee is now listed as endangered under the Species at Risk Act in Canada and as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, but little is being done in the U.S. to ensure that these bumble bees and their habitat are protected. Only official editions of the Although Cordes et al. Surveys conducted by Dr. Robbin Thorp, other private individuals, University classes and researchers, the U.S. Forest Service, and Bureau of Land Management have significantly contributed to the existing information on Franklin's bumble bee. Additionally, surveys in Franklin's bumble bee habitat continue to show evidence of healthy populations of other native Bombus species unaffected by competition from nonnative bees. Its range, a 13,300-square-mile area confined to Siskiyou and Trinity counties in California; and Jackson, Douglas and Josephine counties in Oregon, is thought to be the smallest range of any other bumble bee in the world. “The decline in bumble bees like Franklin’s bumble bee should serve as an alarm that we are losing important pollinators,” said Xerces Society Executive Director Scott Hoffman Black in a press release.  “We hope that the story of the Franklin’s bumble bee will compel us to prevent pollinators across the U.S. from sliding toward extinction.”. The Franklin's bumblebee is currently " under review " to determine whether an ESA listing is warranted. If a Federal action may affect a listed species or its critical habitat, the responsible Federal agency must enter into consultation with the Service. Conservation measures provided to species listed as endangered or threatened species under the Act include recognition, recovery actions, requirements for Federal protection, and prohibitions against certain practices. Franklin's bumble bee was named in 1921 for Henry J. Franklin, who monographed the bumble bees of North and South America in 1912-13. Department of Entomology and Nematology 367 Briggs Hall One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 ph. No studies have investigated the effects of pesticide use on the Franklin's bumble bee, and no discoveries have been documented of any Franklin's bumble bees injured or killed by pesticides. IUCN placed it on the “Red List of Threatened Species” and classified it as “critically endangered” and in “imminent danger of extinction.”. Documented sub-lethal effects to individual bumble bees and colonies include reduced or no male production, reduced or no egg hatch, reduced queen production, reduced queen longevity, reduced colony weight gain, reduced brood size, reduced feeding, impaired ovary development, and an increased number of foragers or foraging trips or duration (interpreted as risky behaviors) (U.S. ACTION: Notice of petition finding and initiation of status review. They require our biologists, to the extent consistent with the Act and with the use of the best scientific data available, to use primary and original sources of information as the basis for recommendations to designate critical habitat.Start Printed Page 40018. Document page views are updated periodically throughout the day and are cumulative counts for this document. For example, the rusty patched bumblebee, which used to flourish in Ontario, is no longer found in all of Canada— in the U.S., it’s endangered. 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