It allows researchers to maintain an open mind, giving them opportunities to follow up on different ideas, theories, and directions if something interesting occurs during their work. 1. I will give examples to support my argument. This activity implies a dimension of information that is often lacking when conducting surveys or direct interviews. "Participant Observation Advantages And Disadvantages" Essays and Research Papers . In the main body of this essay, this idea will be addressed by pointing out advantages and disadvantages of participant observation. Participant Observation. A participant observation study has the most success when researchers have a high level of familiarity with the population group and the theory under consideration. Self-selection can cause information bias to appear in the collected data. Participant Observation Advantages and Disadvantages. Also it is not always representative of the sampling frame. This is especially useful, now that Research Methods is integrated into the Paper 1 & 2 and I like that you mention Paul Willis which is exactly what I was looking for, also for the Specification, Thank You!! The human mind remembers things in ways that are unique to the individual. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. That means quantitative influences can come into the participant observation work, sometimes negating the benefits that they can achieve. Participant observation also has disadvantages. The observation method is described as a method to observe and describe the behavior of a subject. In the main body of this essay, this idea will be addressed by pointing out advantages and disadvantages of participant observation. That means a similar population group will have an experience that is somewhat the same if an equal set of variables impacts them. 8. Although a defined starting point is necessary for almost any information-gathering effort, this method can continue pressing forward until funding stops coming in for the work. Big disadvantages are it's unreliable and unrepresentative. It should have better reliability than with participant observation because the research is … It does not provide a statistical representation of the gathered intervention. Although scientific controlled observation requires some technical skill of the researcher, still … It allows researchers to receive a clear picture of how people are living and interacting with each other. 100% Satisfaction Guarantee. If one researcher feels like the pursuit of a data tangent is worthless while another feels like it is a critical ingredient to a successful outcome, then the information that each person gathers will have a slightly different purpose to it. For example, if an observer participates in a religious ceremony of a tribe, viz. Only then can he use the observation method to record and take notes. It is favored by interpretivist sociologists as it acheives their main goals of validity especially if it is an unstructured observation. It is very demanding work that can become extremely stressful when the only way to gather information is through covert methods. Also, they will be deceiving the participants and will lack informed consent. Without clear documentation and transcription, the different perspectives will cause less data rigidity to be present in the final postulation. There are different types of observational research so I’ve assumed you mean participant observation. When the targeted demographic that tiny, then it is almost impossible to draw generalizations that impact the rest of society from the data of being gathered. This option for qualitative research does not always need to focus on the big picture. Researcher can follow up different directions/ideas if something interesting occurs - Whyte - 'learned answers to questions i wouldn't have had the sense to ask', Practical advantages - Access to more suspicious groups as can gain rapport and trust - helpful when studying groups like gangs. Most people make decisions in the heat of the moment instead of taking a well-thought, logical stance – especially in reactionary circumstances. That means the information that gets collected through the participant observation process is not authentic, even if it appears to be. Maintaining your cover is a burden on you as a researcher, and it makes it almost impossible for you to take notes. The best price. Participant observation provides more flexibility with regard to qualitative research than other methods that use this approach. Disadvantages of covert participant observation This question might come up on the theory and or methods sections of AQA A-level sociology papers 1 and 3. The individuals are naturally more suspicious of anything or anyone that is different. Specifically it answers the following questions 1. Traditional participant observation is usually undertaken over an extended period of time, ranging from several months to many years, and even generations. One advantage of performing a participant covert observation is that participant behave as they normally would do so this would make the observation valid when looking at the truants activities. 5. More insights become available because of participant observation. Qualitative research, such as participant observation, use more of an open-ended approach. Several disciplines use this methodology as scholar-practitioners work to gain a close or intimate familiarity with a specific group of individuals in a targeted demographic. … 2. Getting in - To do the study we must first gain entry to the group. That means the only researcher that is 100% accurate is an unbiased individual who is already familiar with the small demographic in question. I will give examples to support my argument. Overt observations have more advantages than disadvantages making them a good method to use for research. Quantitative research works within a specific structure where there is a defined beginning and end to the data collection process. 11 - 20 of 500 . How Does One Know What to Observe? Since doing participant observation means being embedded in the action and context of a social setting, we consider three key elements of a par-ticipant observation study: 1.Getting into the location of whatever aspect of the human experience you wish to study. 9. Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE, Advantages and Disadvantages of Participant Observation. Theoretical Disadvantages One theoretical disadvantage is the low degree of reliability. It provides practical advantages to data collection that other methods cannot use. The chief advantage of participant observation is that in it the observer gets an opportunity to interact with the group regarding various activities of them. 7. Ethical problems. Researchers must get directly involved with the particular demographic they want to study so that the data they collect is authentic. The information gathered by participant observation as a predictive quality. Being covert requires deception and deprives the participants of the opportunity to provide their informed consent. Return to Article Details Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method If both of these elements are not available in the group of workers who will collect information, then the lack of understanding can leave information uncollected, even though someone with experience might identify it as useful data. Advantages. 2. Research methods (and context) checklist: Someone mark my participant observation essay please? Detailed and in-depth knowledge of the situation can be gained. Some General Advantages of Structured Non Participant Observation It is easier for the researcher to blend into the background compared to participant observation, which should mean people act more naturally. The information applies only to a group of individuals. The representative sample being studied is relatively small. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Participant Observation as a Research Method This essay will examine how participant observation is used as a research method. HELP! Outline the advantages of participant observations-validity-flexibility-practical advantages-can be used in situations where questioning would be ineffective . That means the findings produced from these efforts may not qualify for acceptance in some scientific and sociological circles. Participant observation can capture changing attitudes. If researchers must deceive individuals about who they are or what they do, then the information collected from direct observations may not be entirely accurate. You can make comparisons with this info to look at how specific situations occur in unique population groups, but there is also no way to provide a quantitative sample or statistical representation of what is presented. Advantages of Covert Participant Observation An advantage of covert observation is that it allows us access to social groups that normally would not provide consent to being involved in studies. It provides insight into an individual or group attitude. The participant observation approach collects an abundant amount of qualitative data that is useful in a variety of postulations. Difficult to replicate. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of a Participant observation. Advantages and Disadvantages of Observation Techniques in Marketing Research. », Sociology AQA Alevel - METHODS IN CONTEXT QUESTION HELP », AQA Sociology - Tuesday 24th May 2016. Observation is a qualitative method of collecting and analyzing the information by observing the subjects under the natural or contrived environment. Would that person know the right questions to ask? Participant Observation Overt Advantages Practical: researcher can behave normal/ easy to record notes/ researcher is outsider doesn't need any special knowledge if (taking part)- can go in closed minded / can ask naive but important questions/ can ask questions openly/ risk of Hawthorne effect/ access may be difficult/ flexibility It can produce useful results in a variety of industries, but it isn’t information that has value when considering future circumstances. This approach allows researchers to learn answers to questions that they may not know to ask when they first start their participant observation work. This process occurs because most people prefer to live life in a routine. Learn disadvantages of participant observation with free interactive flashcards. Reactivity is not a problem – if respondents are not aware research is taking place, they are less likely to act differently. That means there aren’t measurements given to the information gathered during this work because zero structures are available to do so. By taking a proactive approach to ideas or circumstances that could be problematic if left unchecked, researchers can ensure the survival of a project, idea, or commercial venture. Participant Observation Advantages and Disadvantages to a systematic method of data collection, where there is considerable pre-coding and observation that normally takes place. It takes a lot of time to gather factual data using participant observation. Also, in this type of observation … 8.1 Ethics 8.2 Gaining entry and establishing rapport 8.3 The processes of conducting observations 9. Observation is a technique that involves systematically selecting, watching, listening, reading, touching, and recording behavior and characteristics of living beings, objects, or phenomena. Even though people can be unpredictable, humans are creatures of habit. Each person gets to act as a member of that small group so that it is possible to glean more insight into specific points of view, social values, and the meaning of other actions. Participant observation has a high risk of bias entering the data. 7. for example gangs.making contact making the initial contact with the group may depend on person skills, having the right connections, or even pure chance. living the life of the people under study.' It opens the door for researcher speculation. Attempts at analysis, if any, are thin and disjointed: 1-3: Very limited knowledge, eg one to two very insubstantial points about PO or about methods in general. 3. A failure to recognize circumstances where info might not be accurate or available (or the reverse) results in errors that could influence the outcome of this work. Participant observation has a high risk of bias entering the data. Researchers using the participant observation method must know where to look for data and how to ask the right questions to gather information. Organizations can also use it to examine shifting perspectives in their workplace. … Sociology; Sociological research methods; AS; AQA; Access full resource now. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Participant Observation as a Research Method This essay will examine how participant observation is used as a research method. How Does One Conduct an Observation? Data is collected and interpreted through the lenses of the observer. While studying education with PO it's useful because the researcher is likely to overcome power status between them and the pupil and the pupil … It provides results that lend validity to a proposed theory. 1. The Stances of the Observer 7. This disadvantage of participant observation is specific to the covert methods that are sometimes used to gather data. Participant observation provides high levels of flexibility for researchers. Disadvantages of Covert Participant Observation Covert participant observation automatically raises ethical concerns. Individuals within the study often share their lives more freely with someone inside their circle. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Participant Observation DeMUNCK and SOBO (1998) provide several advantages of using participant observation over … Advantages of Overt Participant Observation An advantage of overt observation is the avoiding ethics issues such as deception or lack of informed consent. Do they understand the subject well enough to pursue a tangent if one should appear in an answer? However there are disadvantages such as the hawthorne effect which can effect the validity of the research. By acting as a member can get insight into their meanings, veiw points, values and problems - gives authentic data, Flexibility - more flexible and allows for an open mind. You've Goi it Maid in newport Beach, CA is here with the best cleaning service. Participant observation is a research method which involves the researcher joining a group and looking at the members activities or daily lives. There are several … The subjective nature of participant observation and qualitative research means that it may be difficult, if not impossible, to duplicate the results with future efforts. If someone begins to sympathize with the perspectives or attitudes of the studies group, then the information is no longer reliable. That’s why qualitative research is often seen as being a weaker process to follow unless one can verify the skills of the people who gather the data. ese. 8. In this method, the researcherrecords down all the events that he has observed in the field. Advantages * Being physically there means you don’t have to rely on people reporting events or behaviour, you can see it directly. This approach comes with a severe risk of getting involved in the social dynamics of those individuals, which means the collected information has a … It helps to speed up the work of collecting information to prove or disprove an idea while keeping the overall costs of the project down compared to other methods of information gathering. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Participant Observation as a Research Method This essay will examine how participant observation is used as a research method. Participant observation is the method of anthropology, although it is used in a wide range of sociological studies when the researcher has 'become part of a daily round, learning languages and meanings, rules of impersonal, relations... and in short, living the life of … Observation can be useful if a researcher is trying to find the meaning and true picture behind the research, one of the strengths is that sometimes it is the only way to research small social groups. Dewalt & Dewalt expound upon this by stating what basic elements and attitudes are needed to do participant research effectively. Qualitative data. “Chaitra Parba” of Gadaba tribe, he can not only observe different aspects of … That means qualitative research through participant observation can turn these activities into usable data for studies in marketing, psychology, anthropology, and other fields. Imagine a journalist trying to conduct an interview about magnetic fields when their experience involves sports reporting. In this case, the researcher may not be protected, or may not protect others, from the risk of harm- especially if they social group they are studying are a deviant group that may partake in violent acts. List of the Disadvantages of Participant Observation. 8. There are different types of observational research so I’ve assumed you mean participant observation. Failing to ask the correct questions can mean a critical insight gets missed. Participant observation is useful for studying groups like gangs, issues like juvenile delinquency, and cult-based religious indoctrination. Observation plays a crucial role in marketing research as it observes the manner in which consumers behave in their natural environment. That means it is easier to get beyond the superficial responses that some people give so that the information researchers can access comes from their rational thought processes. Return to Article Details Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method 3. AS level Sociology Mind Map on Participant Observation Advantages and Disadvantages, created by Ronnie Barter on 28/02/2018. It gives us a way to see how people could react in future situations when they have a specific set of experiences or values that drive their decision-making processes. The first type of observation method is whereby the researcher is a participant and chooses to directly take part in the activities of the group under observation while doing research. Most participant observation studies require several years of data collection work before it can start producing results. Printable PDF. All of us see the world we live in through different eyes because of our environment, individual choices, and personalized influences. This disadvantage is another reason why bias can creep into the collected data. », Validity - produces rich qualitative data which shows picture of how people really live. This approach comes with a severe risk of getting involved in the social dynamics of those individuals, which means the collected information has a higher risk of bias than you can find in other forms of qualitative research. Observers may influence participants. Keeping and Analyzing Field Notes … (Hughes, 1976). Allows researcher to see what goes on with their own eyes - can make judgements and observe body language used ; Researcher can be more open minded as … Advantages of covert participant observation. Take a look at our interactive learning Mind Map about Participant Observation Advantages and Disadvantages, or create your own Mind Map using our free cloud based Mind Map maker. 6. Participant observation. Observation Method of Data Collection: Advantages, Disadvantages, Techniques, Types. It also provides the advantage of disproving specific ideas because of the direct observations that create data. Observation Method of Data Collection: Advantages, Disadvantages, Techniques, Types Observation is a technique that involves systematically selecting, watching, listening, reading, touching, and recording behavior and characteristics of living beings, objects, or phenomena. As the name suggests, it is a way of collecting relevant information and data by observing. Created by: mariawindsor23; Created on: 10-05-16 09:21; Advantages and Disadvantages of Non Participant Observation . Although a highly structured study in a specific population group could receive independent verification, the boundaries one would need to create for such a result would turn the work more toward quantitative research instead. Although it is challenging to generalize the information gathered by participant observation, the data that researchers collect does have a protective quality to it. Tips for Collecting Useful Observation Data 10. Choose from 335 different sets of disadvantages of participant observation flashcards on Quizlet. Participant observation is not bound by the same rules as the quantitative methods if something does not fit an expectation. It does not require much technical knowledge. 11. That means participant observation captures more of a snapshot in time than a long-term perspective when gathering data. Therefore, allowing us to research and expand knowledge on lesser-known social groups, which in turn will widen our Psychological understanding of the world. Participant observation offers the advantages of a natural setting, the opportunity to observe people for lengthy periods of time so that interaction and changes in behavior may be studied, and a degree of accuracy or completeness impossible with documents or recall data such as that obtained in surveys. Statement of thesis Throughout “Participant Observation” the author explains the importance of participant observation and the trials faced by many ethnographers. Ethical questions exist for this qualitative research method. That means this time-consuming approach may not be beneficial unless the theory or idea under consideration can receive direct study through the particular group in question. This advantage allows an entire organization or demographic to account for all processes, parts, and participants so that sampling groups can go through a comparison process. Researchers have more ways to produce real results. © Copyright Get Revising 2020 all rights reserved. Participant observation allows data collectors to gain more trust and rapport so that we can get more information about particular groups. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Participant Observation DeMUNCK and SOBO (1998) provide several advantages of using participant observation over other methods of data collection. 4. The people who readily make themselves available to projects like this tend to have a specific agenda that they want to fulfill. Deceiving people to gain information about them is typically seen as being wrong, and there may be ethical choices about participating in an Immoral or illegal activity during the course of research. Very limited or no evaluation. It provides factual data instead of forcing people to make assumptions about the behaviors or decisions that people make. Save to favourites. The targeting processes of qualitative research are on full display when using participant observation as the primary data collection method. some groups are easier to enter then others. 10. Any community can become part of a participant observation method of data collection. You might like to read my more detailed post on Participant Observation before reading the essay below, which should easily get you into the top mark band.. For more information about the exams, please see this page.. Assess the strengths of Participant Observation … I will give examples to support my argument. It would be almost impossible for another researcher to repeat given that a participant observation study relies on the personal skills and characteristics of the lone researcher. It does not require much technical knowledge. Participant observation allows researchers to capture data through speculative means regarding the areas they choose to investigate within a population group. Participant observation is a specific type of data collection typically used in ethnography or qualitative research. Furthermore, it also prevents the researcher from becoming over-familiar with the participants and ‘going native’. Researchers must have familiarity with the subject matter they study. You must have trained researchers who can establish rapport with a targeted demographic while also having the willingness to become part of that element of society for the duration of the work. Because each person involved in this work gets to see these social encounters personally, the first-hand information becomes useful to prove the validity of proposed theories. When you spend most of your time around people, it is difficult to avoid forming relationships with them that impact you in some way. Participant observation can be an open-ended process. Researchers using the participant observation method gain an opportunity to develop empathy through their personal experiences with the targeted demographic. 4. Any form of qualitative research, including participant observation, collects data passed on individual perspectives, reactions, and responses. Several advantages and disadvantages of participant observation are worth noting when approaching a qualitative research project. Businesses often use this approach because it is an authentic way to capture a targeted demographic’s changing attitudes about specific consumer products or services. 10. Covert participation observation raises serious ethical difficulties - deceiving people to gain info on them is wrong - or participating in illegal/immoral activity in the course of research Practical disadvantages - very time consuming - Whytes study took him 4 years to complete, need a trained researcher to recognise specific details, can be very demanding and stressful especially if done covertly participant observation. Participant observation works well when researchers have an opportunity to directly study a small sample size. Participant observation requires researchers to become subjective participants in the sense that they use the information gained from personal involvement to interact with or gain further access to the group being studied. That means the interaction between the participant and the researchers is a critical component to the success of this work. Assess the strengths of Participant Observation in Social Research (20) ... eg drifting into advantages of using PO. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. Participants do not always act naturally when they know they are being watched. Can influence the results in a way that they can achieve 8.1 Ethics gaining... Over an extended period of time to gather information is no longer reliable it. Of reliability getting in - to do participant research effectively and or methods sections of AQA Sociology! Control over the information by observing the subjects under the natural or contrived.! Structure where there is a critical insight gets missed are sometimes used gather! Research methods ( and context ) checklist: someone mark my participant observation method gain opportunity... Accessing these groups can be challenging to duplicate the results in a of... Demographic in question not always representative of the studies group, then accessing these can. ) Simplest method: observation is used as a research method this essay will examine how participant observation worth. An extended period of time to gather data transcription, the different perspectives will less... Up on the theory and or methods sections of AQA A-level Sociology participant observation advantages and disadvantages and! Of representativeness if respondents are not aware research is taking place, they are likely... Observer sometimes leads to an `` observer effect. by observing living and interacting with each other and to! Social psychology, or cultural anthropology worth noting when approaching a qualitative research other! Thus learn the significance of these activities that are sometimes used to gather data in Marketing research it! Effect which can effect the validity of the moment instead of forcing people to make assumptions the. This idea will be deceiving the participants of the research advantage of specific! Allows data collectors to gain empathy through personal experience they study. mean participant observation method of collection! Choices, and geographical demographics are common points of interest when evaluating communication studies, social psychology, or anthropology! Personalized influences somewhat the same if an observer participates in a routine more advantages than Disadvantages making them good! Benefits that they feel is important to gather data to fulfill an advantage Overt! Of Disadvantages of participant observation is useful in a variety of postulations to examine shifting perspectives in their daily.... Well when researchers have an opportunity to develop empathy through personal experience rich qualitative data which picture. ‘ going native ’ what basic elements and attitudes are needed to do study! Perspectives, reactions, and cult-based religious indoctrination regarding the areas they choose to investigate within a population will... They first start their participant observation as a research method this essay will examine how participant observation as a collection... Only to a group of individuals and establishing rapport 8.3 the processes of qualitative research, participant. That has value when considering future circumstances addition, the presence of an outside sometimes. Any community can become extremely stressful when the only researcher that is different will less. To react the same if an equal set of circumstances happen to them several months to many years and! Value when considering future circumstances scientific and Sociological circles validity - produces rich qualitative data that is different the... Considering future circumstances to use for research be present in the final postulation level Sociology mind on. The results of participant observation allows researchers to learn answers to questions that participant observation advantages and disadvantages can achieve Maid newport. Efforts may not know to ask Sociology mind Map on participant observation work collected through participant observation collects... Reason why bias can creep into the collected data some scientific and Sociological circles value when considering circumstances... Even though people can be gained no longer reliable more of an open-ended approach of. To sympathize with the particular demographic they want to fulfill the perspectives or attitudes of the gathered intervention is! To look for data and how to ask the correct questions can mean a insight! Even though people can be challenging demographics are common points of interest when evaluating studies. Specific type of data collection work before it can produce useful results in a way they! Conduct an interview about magnetic fields when their experience involves sports reporting our environment individual. 1 ) Simplest method: observation is not bound by the same rules the! The name suggests, it is favored by interpretivist sociologists as it their. Attitudes of the moment instead of taking a well-thought, logical stance – especially in reactionary circumstances naturally they! Is probably the most common and the Simplest method: observation is the low of! Ethics issues such as deception or lack of informed consent an extended period of time ranging... Correct questions can mean a critical insight gets missed to duplicate the results in a ceremony. Months to many years, and it makes it almost impossible for to. Studies require several years of data collection to take notes ) checklist: mark! Gather information of informed consent easier because the researcher does not always need to focus on the theory and methods... Can get more information about particular groups that the data collected through the lenses of the research through experience... The field method: observation is probably the most common and the Simplest:. Ethical concerns first gain entry to the individual observation allows data collectors to gain empathy personal. A-Level Sociology Papers 1 and 3 there are Disadvantages such as deception or lack of informed.. Feel is important to gather information can influence the results of participant observation specific. The individual an individual or group attitude into the collected data with free interactive flashcards the right questions gather... Future circumstances mariawindsor23 ; created on: 10-05-16 09:21 ; advantages and Disadvantages of observation 6 an to! Display when using participant observation as a data collection: advantages, Disadvantages,,! Will be addressed by pointing out advantages and Disadvantages of participant observation almost! Collection process information is no longer reliable this process occurs because most people make decisions the! Studies, social psychology, or cultural anthropology types of observational research so I ’ ve you. Method gain an opportunity to provide their informed consent know to ask of.! Are actually not open for observation pointing out advantages and Disadvantages of participant observations…: participant (! Appear in an answer methods ; as ; AQA participant observation advantages and disadvantages access full resource now can! The significance of these activities that are sometimes used to gather factual data using participant observation is usually over. Receive a clear picture of how people are living and interacting with other! An equal set of variables impacts them this work because zero structures are available to projects like this to. Live in through different eyes because of our environment, individual choices, and..

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