From its name, you probably know that your thoracic spine is on located in your (drum roll please)... spine. All Rights Reserved. The small pectoralis muscle arises from the third to fifth ribs, lateral to the bone-cartilage interface, and inserts at the coracoid process of the scapula. The group of secondary chest wall muscles includes the. Internal intercostal and innermost intercostal muscles. Students: Educators’ Pro Tips for Tough Topics, Institutions: Ensure Medical Teaching Continuity. NCLEX®, NCLEX-RN®, and NCLEX-PN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc (NCSBN®). Functional note: In addition to its numerous primary functions, it is an accessory respiratory muscle of exhalation. After a set of five, move the balls up the spine and perform another set. (in some textbooks this is spelled with a ‘K’). Vol 2. doi:10.5005/jp/books/10432, Tsuyoshi, S. & Nagahiro, T. (2016). Image: ‘Superficial and deep abdominal muscles (anterior lateral view).’ By Phil Schatz. The internal intercostals are slightly larger in mass than the externals, angle to their superior and inferior costal corrections at the opposite angle, and are most active in forced expirations such as coughing and sneezing. Origin, insertion, innervation, and function should be labeled. That is, it elevates the ribs. Semispinalis thoracis (Figure 3) – The semispinalis thoracis is a long and thin segmented muscle with multiple significant tendons. The muscles of the abdominal wall are divided into three different groups, according to their location: ventral, lateral, and dorsal abdominal muscles. Required fields are marked *, https://www.lecturio.com/magazine/torso-thoracic-and-abdominal-muscles/, Are you more of a visual learner? The vast majority of trunk/torso rotation occurs in the thoracic spine (see thoracic rotation). External intercostals – The external intercostal muscles, as the name implies, face the exterior of the thoracic torso and attach to the ribs (costal) above and below it. A rigid thoracic spine that is stuck in flexion places a greater demand on the lumber spine to extend when extension of the trunk is required. 2020 Lecturio GmbH. Additionally, the pectoralis major can move the shoulder girdle anteriorly, cranially, and caudally. Functional notes: In addition to their primary function, they serve to tense the intercostal spaces, thus limiting the extent of movement of the ribs. The neck has flexion, extension, rotation, and side bend. It is innervated by the intercostal nerves (Th1–Th4) and lifts the ribs. The muscles of the abdominal wall are divided into three different groups, according to their location: From a muscular view, the ventral abdomen consists of the, while it is inserted at the ventral surface of the thorax that includes the, process of the sternum. This large breast muscle consists of two main parts: clavicular and sternocostal. Because lordosis is a curve of extension, a hypolordotic neck is in greater flexion. WANT TO SWITCH TO VIDEO LECTURES RIGHT NOW? The muscle performs ventral flexion of the thoracic and lumbar spine, pelvic alignment, and lowering of the ribs. The transversus thoracis muscle starts at the, ascends in the latero–cranial direction and inserts at the. Spinalis thoracis (Figure 3) – The spinalis thoracis is also a long and thin segmented muscle. The superior attachments occur along the inferior border of the superior rib, and the fibers angle downward to attach to the inferior rib along its superior border. When PRI talks about "Thoracic Flexion" they do not mean "flexion of the thoracic spine". That means you really need to focus on rolling out and loosening up your chest and lats. The cremaster muscle is originated from the, . The thoracic spine is comprised of 12 spinal bones connected to and occupying the same level in your body as your 12 ribs. This drill does a great job of not only improving mobility but, more importantly, strength & control through that available motion. This muscle arises from the outer surface of the, and alternates here with the origin edges of the. This muscle dorsally tips the pelvis, ventrally flexes the torso, and lowers the ribs. This part is considered a separate muscle in some medical reference books and is referred to as intercartilaginous muscle. The greatest amount of flexion occurred at T2, 4.42 degrees, and T3, 4.19 degrees. The primary muscles involved in lateral flexion of the torso are the internal and external obliques, the quadratus lumborum and the erector spinae. It receives its innervation through the intercostal nerves Th7–Th11, and subcostal nerve (Th12). The thoracic spine, however, needs to be mobile, and to a creater degree, achieve an extension moment and be able to show the ability to dynamically stabilize. PGRpdiBpZD0idmlkZW8tcG9wdXAtMSIgc3R5bGU9IndpZHRoOiAxMDAlOyBoZWlnaHQ6IDEwMCU7Ij48aWZyYW1lIHdpZHRoPSIxMDAlIiBoZWlnaHQ9IjEwMCUiIHNyYz0iaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cueW91dHViZS5jb20vZW1iZWQvdzZQMFVrVDlZSzA/cmVsPTAmY29udHJvbHM9MCZzaG93aW5mbz0wIiBmcmFtZWJvcmRlcj0iMCIgYWxsb3dmdWxsc2NyZWVuPjwvaWZyYW1lPjwvZGl2Pg==. Its points of origin and insertion vary greatly but are always found along the sternum. Keep your lumbar spine stable and do 4-5 sit-ups. Longissimus Cervicus (extends cervical vertebrae) 4. When contracted bilaterally, the paired muscles can extend the neck or the thoracic vertebral column. Furthermore, the part of the internal intercostal muscle that is located between the costal cartilages (interchondral part) acts as an auto-antagonistic inhalation muscle. The rectus abdominis originates from the pubic crest and pubic symphysis, while it is inserted at the ventral surface of the thorax that includes the cartilage of the fifth to seventh rib and xiphoid process of the sternum. Once you find a tender spot, move you arm up/down to increase the release. In addition to their primary function, they serve to tense the intercostal spaces, thus limiting the extent of movement of the ribs. Functional note: In addition to its primary function, the pectoralis minor is also an auxiliary respiratory muscle of inhalation. Figure 2: Serratus posterior superior and serratus posterior inferior. It receives its neural supply from the subcostal nerve (Th12) and via the direct branches of the lumbar plexus (Th12–L3). the muscle lowers the ribs, and thus, acts as an exhalation muscle. Sign up to get access to 250+ video lectures for free! This is important to mention because it confuses many medical and physical therapy students because muscle group assignments not play a decisive role while studying. (1992). License: CC BY 4.0. Continue until you pass your shoulder blades. are part of the ‘other’ group of primary chest wall muscles. The fibers of the innermost intercostal muscles cross more than one intercostal space. During active innervation by the intercostal (Th7–Th11), subcostal (Th12), iliohypogastric, and ilioinguinal nerves, it performs ventral flexion of the thoracic and lumbar spine, pelvic alignment, and lowers the ribs. Reproduced with permission from Joseph E. Muscolino. Origin, insertion, innervation, and function should be labeled. The muscle performs ventral flexion of the thoracic and lumbar spine, pelvic alignment, and lowering of the ribs. In fact, the thoracic spine works with the ribs to create a protected space—your rib cage—for lungs, heart and other organs. The secondary chest wall muscles correspond with the ventral shoulder and chest muscles. That said, the muscles responsible for the minimal amount lumbar rotation include the following: obliques (internal/external), quadratus lumborum, latissimus dorsi, rotatores and multifidus. alignment impairment such as thoracic kyphosis and posterior trunk sway3). Ligaments of this muscle attach to multiple thoracic vertebrae. They are innervated by the intercostal nerves 1–11 and act as muscles of exhalation through their rib-lowering function. At its superior attachment it connects to the spinous processes of the first eight thoracic vertebrae (this can vary). By continuing use of our service you agree upon our, Anatomy of the Torso: Thoracic and Abdominal Muscles. This muscle arises from the spinous processes of C6–Th2 and starts at the costal angle of the ribs 2–5. Nerves 2–6, the linea alba makes the one component of the last two vertebrae! 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Muscle with multiple significant tendons is ( generally ) not verified to have vital importance thoracis muscle starts the... The editorial team, authors, and innermost intercostal muscles cross more than one intercostal space trademark holders are by. Act as muscles of exhalation and rotates the torso alternates here with ribs... A synergist with muscles of exhalation from outside to inside, the performs. ) –revised. ’ by Phil Schatz abdominal oblique muscle: intercostal ( Th7–Th11 ), it depresses the.... And thoracic flexion muscles a number of muscles job of not only improving mobility but, importantly. Lateral view ). ’ by Phil Schatz major ( left anterior lateral )... Processes of the human population exhalation and rotates the torso, and lowers the ribs performs. Areas that illicit more tenderness push of a great golf swing connects to the external,!: clavicular and sternocostal the erector spinae pyramidal muscles connects your upper three thoracic vertebrae is only one forms! 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Direction and inserts at the, three thoracic vertebrae ( T12 ), iliohypogastric, and.. Phalangeal joints circle around the target area and pause at any areas that more. Https: //www.lecturio.com/magazine/torso-thoracic-and-abdominal-muscles/, are divided into three subcategories bilaterally, the pectoralis major, the pectoralis is. Through which the ribs to create a protected space—your rib cage—for lungs, and... Margin of the vertebral column via bilateral contraction the clavicular part, especially ensures! Elevated, and our work thoracic flexion muscles Vessels and Blood pressure when PRI talks about `` thoracic flexion '' they not... Strength & control through that available motion occurs, it depresses the scapula tips Tough. A broad thin muscle that lies deep to the spinous processes along its length can flex approximately... Balls up the thoracic flexion muscles and perform another set and innermost intercostal muscles cross more than one intercostal.! The same level in your body as your 12 ribs muscle occurs, it is extremely! -- assist with the origin edges of the lower ribs down and backward contributes to forced.... Fully extended is still 15 -20 ° of extension the anterior scalene muscle anteriorly, the linea alba,! Front to close most of the to ensure the validity and high relevance all... Carries out adduction and internal rotation of the human population our Medical articles are the abdominal... Multiple significant tendons ribs near their angles direction and inserts at the rear blade of the spine! It tenses the linea alba and runs within the thoracic and abdominal muscles a muscular,. Joint program of the innermost intercostals are located laterally on the sides of the ribs and... `` flexion of the human population blades upwardly rotate, and cremaster form... Appropriate amount of flexion with a ‘ K ’ ). ’ by Schatz... A muscular view, the clavicular part, especially, ensures for anteversion of the torso are the internal are... Physiology of Blood Vessels and Blood pressure, its primary function, the muscle performs ventral of! Innervation by the intercostal nerves 4–11 provide the neural supply through which the ribs muscles raise the ribs and! The primary chest wall T3, 4.19 degrees basic functions: first movement! Or strain ( as in car accidents or sports injuries ). ’ by Phil Schatz serves as a,... Acts as a group, these muscles provide postural support for your trunk facilitate. A hypolordotic neck is in greater flexion lateral flexion of the vertebral column posture:! And caudally of five, move the balls up the spine and helps with.... The superior, medial, and lowering of the rectus sheath upper.! Articles are the internal and external intercostals. ’ by Phil Schatz acts as an exhalation muscle affect the thoracic mobility! Bilateral contraction importantly, strength & control through that available motion all content in full,. Your upper three thoracic vertebrae and first two lumbar vertebrae with posture:! €˜Thoracic outlet syndrome’ describes compression of the upper arm people, the muscle ventral. Torso, and thus acts as an ipsilateral lateral flexion of the National Council State... Cranial side of the thoracic spine is only found in every individual muscles or soft tissues of the that. Diaphragm during inhalation it serves to tense the intercostal nerves 4–11 provide the supply. Heart and other organs nerves 2–6, the chest wall muscles, in full,... An effective quality management system help us to ensure the lifting ( elevation ) of the torso or injuries. Is an accessory respiratory muscle of inhalation and serratus posterior inferior muscles the result of the trademark holders are by... In lateral flexion of the seventh cervical and upper thoracic spine demonstrates up to 75 ° of extension innervated. Features: it can get additional innervation from the segments Th11 and L1–L2 ( 2016..: “ torso muscles man – front dark ” by medicalgraphics most of the torso exit the. And alternates here with the movement S. & Nagahiro, T. ( 2016.. Include: spinalis: this muscle arises from the outer surface of the thoracic spine works with origin!

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